Novel tubulin-polymerization inhibitor derived from thalidomide directly induces apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells: Possible anti-myeloma mechanism of thalidomide
To ascertain the exact anti-myeloma mechanism of thalidomide in vivo, we performed structural development studies of thalidomide, and obtained various analogues with specific molecular properties. Among these derivatives, we found that a new thalidomide analogue, 2-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-5-hydroxy-1H-isoindole-1,3-dione (5HPP-33) had the most potent anti-myeloma effect and tubulin-polymerization-inhibiting activity. 5HPP-33 directly inhibited the growth and survival of various myeloma cell lines (RPMI8226, U266, and IM9) in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 1-10 μM. In contrast, thalidomide itself did not inhibit cellular growth of RPMI8226 cells. Cultivation with 10 μM 5HPP-33 induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis of myeloma cells. Treatment with 5HPP-33 induced caspase-3 activity and PARP cleavage. A tubulin polymerization assay using microtubule protein from porcine brain revealed that 5HPP-33 showed potent tubulin-polymerization-inhibiting activity with IC50 of 8.1 μM, comparable to that of the known tubulin-polymerization inhibitor, rhizoxin. Moreover, its activity was more potent than that of a known thalidomide metabolite, 5-hydroxythalidomide. Notably, the structural requirement for its activity was critical, as other analogues and derivatives of 5HPP-33 showed only slight tubulin-polymerization-inhibiting activity. Our data suggest that 5HPP-33 is a promising candidates for a therapeutic agent of multiple myeloma. In addition, these results suggest that the tubulin-polymerization inhibiting activity of thalidomide might be a possible mechanism for inducing the apoptosis of myeloma cells by thalidomide.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
Publication date: February 1, 2008
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- The International Journal of Molecular Medicine is a monthly, peer-reviewed journal devoted to the publication of high quality studies related to the molecular mechanisms of human disease. The journal welcomes research on all aspects of molecular and clinical research, ranging from biochemistry to immunology, pathology, genetics, human genomics, microbiology, molecular pathogenesis, molecular cardiology, molecular surgery and molecular psychology.
The International Journal of Molecular Medicine aims to provide an insight for researchers within the community in regard to developing molecular tools and identifying molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of a diverse number of human diseases.
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