CREB and Elk-1 phosphorylation by metabotropic glutamate receptors in striatal neurons (Review)
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are implicated in the regulation of diverse neuronal plasticity and neuropathological processes in the central nervous system. Activation of mGluRs couples glutamatergic signals to second messengers in a subtype-specific manner: activation of group I mGluRs upregulates Ca2+ cascades, while group II/III downregulates the adenylate cyclase and cAMP cascades. Dominant presynaptic inhibitory actions of group II/III mGluRs on the glutamate release, extensive cross-talk between kinases by various second messengers downstream to the group I mGluRs, and desensitization of mGluRs in response to prolonged stimulation of glutamate input have been documented in the regulation of glutamatergic transmission. In addition to the spatiotemporal processes, interactions with ionotropic glutamate receptors, and protein phosphatase activity against kinase actions further regulate glutamatergic signals. These overall activities in medium spiny neurons contribute to modifying striatal outflow in striatopallidal and striatonigral neurons. Thus, characterization of the roles of mGluRs in the regulation of intracellular effectors is crucial for the understanding of diverse neuronal plasticity implicated with the receptors including long-term potentiation and long-term depression, neurotoxicity, actions of abused drugs, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review we attempted to provide a broad spectrum on how mGluRs regulate the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein and Elk-1, well known inducible transcription factors by extracellular stimuli, by emphasizing major kinase interactions in medium spiny neurons.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Division of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, M3-C15, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA
Publication date: January 1, 2002
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The International Journal of Molecular Medicine aims to provide an insight for researchers within the community in regard to developing molecular tools and identifying molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of a diverse number of human diseases.
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