Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, a potential target for drugs: Cellular regulatory role of the polymer and the polymerase protein mediated by catalytic and macromolecular colligative actions (Review).
The cellular coenzymatic role of NAD, being a pleiotropic cofactor for diverse cellular reactions, is extended to poly(ADP-ribose) and to the highly abundant nuclear protein, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, with special focus on the pharmacological action of ligands on the latter. The polymer is defined to possess a helical configuration. From direct analyses of the polymer under physiological conditions, it is concluded that the polymerase is dormant in normal tissues, but is activated under certain pathological conditions: malignancy, retroviral integrate containing cells, and in a variety of inflammatory states. The interaction of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase ligands with the DNA component of the active poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase - DNA complex is shown. A major cellular function of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase protein is its binding capacity to a large number of nuclear proteins and DNA sites, an effect which is induced by drugs that inhibit the polymerase activity. The malignancy-reverting effect of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase ligand drugs is illustrated in chemically and oncovirally transformed cancer cells. The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase ligand-induced cessation of HIV replication is analyzed. Peroxynitrite-induced DNA damage-initiated pathological responses are shown to be inhibited by a specific poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase ligand. The irreversibly acting C-NO drugs oxidize asymmetric zinc fingers [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, HIV gag-precursor protein] and act as anti-cancer and anti-HIV agents, an effect that is regulated by cellular concentration of GSH.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Octamer, Inc., and Octamer Research Foundation, Berkeley, CA 94710, USA.
Publication date: August 1, 1998
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- The International Journal of Molecular Medicine is a monthly, peer-reviewed journal devoted to the publication of high quality studies related to the molecular mechanisms of human disease. The journal welcomes research on all aspects of molecular and clinical research, ranging from biochemistry to immunology, pathology, genetics, human genomics, microbiology, molecular pathogenesis, molecular cardiology, molecular surgery and molecular psychology.
The International Journal of Molecular Medicine aims to provide an insight for researchers within the community in regard to developing molecular tools and identifying molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of a diverse number of human diseases.
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