In vitro effects of GM-CSF on mature peripheral blood neutrophils.
GM-CSF can play a crucial role in regulating the neutrophil-mediated inflammatory response. This growth factor is a proliferative stimulus for bone marrow neutrophil stem cell precursors and has at least 3 important roles in regulating neutrophil-mediated immunity: a) a direct effect on the proliferation and development of neutrophil progenitors; b) synergistic activity with other haemopoietic growth factors; c) stimulation of the functional activity of mature neutrophils. The production of GM-CSF may be triggered directly by exogenous factors such as antigens and endotoxins, or indirectly through the release of cytokines by a variety of cells including lymphocytes, activated macrophages and endothelial cells exposed to products of mononuclear phagocytes. Such production of GM-CSF may serve to quickly release mature neutrophils from the bone marrow in response to infections. Moreover, enhancement of the function of mature neutrophils may also augment their ability to migrate to infective sites and then phagocytose and kill pathogens. Increased expression of CD11b/CD18 may play a fundamental part in this mechanism because this receptor is essential for the adhesion of neutrophils to the endothelium. Both phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity increase as a result of the action of GM-CSF and the increased expression of complement- and Fc-receptors can augment opsono-phagocytosis. A further level of neutrophil up-regulation occurs by increasing the functional life span of neutrophils by GM-CSF. Thus, by delaying neutrophil apoptosis, GM-CSF greatly extends the time over which neutrophils may function at inflammatory sites. GM-CSF can thus exert a variety of important regulatory controls of neutrophil function during bacterial infections. Both the number and the functional status of neutrophils is highly regulated by GM-CSF. It is also possible that GM-CSF produced within localised sites of acute inflammation or infection may attract, trap and then activate neutrophils within this site.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, IRCCS S. Matteo H., Pavia, Italy.
Publication date: June 1, 1998
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- The International Journal of Molecular Medicine is a monthly, peer-reviewed journal devoted to the publication of high quality studies related to the molecular mechanisms of human disease. The journal welcomes research on all aspects of molecular and clinical research, ranging from biochemistry to immunology, pathology, genetics, human genomics, microbiology, molecular pathogenesis, molecular cardiology, molecular surgery and molecular psychology.
The International Journal of Molecular Medicine aims to provide an insight for researchers within the community in regard to developing molecular tools and identifying molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of a diverse number of human diseases.
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