p53 and protein kinase C independent induction of growth arrest and apoptosis by bryostatin 1 in a highly metastatic mammary epithelial cell line: In vitro versus in vivo activity.
We have evaluated the effects of bryostatin 1 on growth of a highly malignant p53-null mouse mammary tumor line, 4T1, and the mechanism by which bryostatin 1 inhibits in vitro growth and in vivo development of tumor and metastases from the orthotopic site. Bryostatin 1 at 20-400 nM concentrations inhibits growth of 4T1 cells by approximately 60% in two-day cultures. Inhibition of growth is associated with an increase in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis with concomitant elevation in the steady state levels of bax protein and drop in bcl-2 levels. The cytotoxic effect of bryostatin 1 on 4T1 cells occurs independently of p53, since there was no evidence of p53-mediated transcriptional activity in 4T1 cells following treatment with bryostatin 1.4T1 cells respond in vivo to bryostatin 1 therapy (75 microg/kg body weight). Intraperitoneal administration of bryostatin 1 inhibits both primary and secondary tumor growth by approximately 50%. However, although bryostatin 1 has a remarkable capacity to slow tumor growth and progression, it is unable to completely eradicate tumor growth and progression due to in vivo development of tumor resistance to bryostatin 1. Levels and cellular distribution of PKCalpha and delta do not correlate with the growth inhibitory effects of bryostatin 1 on 4T1 cells; however, reduction in cytosolic PKCalpha and delta without associated increase in membrane compartment appear to correlate with bryostatin-resistance. Our results suggest that the therapeutic effects of bryostatin 1 in our system do not involve alterations in levels and distribution of PKC but rather a direct upregulation of bax/ bcl-2 ratios that is independent of p53.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Breast Cancer Program, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
Publication date: June 1, 1998
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- The International Journal of Molecular Medicine is a monthly, peer-reviewed journal devoted to the publication of high quality studies related to the molecular mechanisms of human disease. The journal welcomes research on all aspects of molecular and clinical research, ranging from biochemistry to immunology, pathology, genetics, human genomics, microbiology, molecular pathogenesis, molecular cardiology, molecular surgery and molecular psychology.
The International Journal of Molecular Medicine aims to provide an insight for researchers within the community in regard to developing molecular tools and identifying molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of a diverse number of human diseases.
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