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The role of 12-lipoxygenase in pancreatic -cells (Review).

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Leukocyte type 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4) to 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HPETE) and linoleic acid (LA; C18:2) to 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE). Previous studies have demonstrated that 12-LO, but not 5- or 15-lipoxygenase (5-LO, 15-LO respectively), is specifically expressed in pancreatic -cells and is involved in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Lipoxygenase products also have been linked with inflammatory pathways in endothelial cells, kidney mesangial cells, inflammatory bowel disease, and corneal epithelial cells. Therefore, 12-LO may play a role in cytokine mediated inflammation in pancreatic beta-cells (i.e. beta -cell dysfunction and cytotoxicity). Cytokines such as IL-1 stimulate both de novo 12-LO protein synthesis and enzyme activity in pancreatic beta-cells. The products generated by 12-LO may ultimately be involved in cellular events that lead to lipid peroxidation. Hydroperoxide and free radical production in beta-cells can activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to cell death or may directly damage mitochondrial and plasma membranes. Increased 12-LO expression has also been found in islets from prediabetic Zucker fatty rats, a model that demonstrates insulin secretory defects similar to human type 2 diabetes. In this review, we present an overview of the 12-LO pathway in regulating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta-cells as well as more recent data which supports the hypothesis that the 12-LO pathway participates in cytokine mediated beta-cell dysfunction and cytotoxicity.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Publication date: January 1, 1998

More about this publication?
  • The International Journal of Molecular Medicine is a monthly, peer-reviewed journal devoted to the publication of high quality studies related to the molecular mechanisms of human disease. The journal welcomes research on all aspects of molecular and clinical research, ranging from biochemistry to immunology, pathology, genetics, human genomics, microbiology, molecular pathogenesis, molecular cardiology, molecular surgery and molecular psychology.

    The International Journal of Molecular Medicine aims to provide an insight for researchers within the community in regard to developing molecular tools and identifying molecular targets for the diagnosis and treatment of a diverse number of human diseases.
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