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Glucagonoma: From skin lesions to the neuroendocrine component (Review)

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Glucagonoma is a hormonally active rare pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour causing an excess of glucagon. This is a narrative review based on a multidisciplinary approach of the tumour. Typically associated dermatosis is necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) which is most frequently seen at disease onset. Insulindependent diabetes mellitus, depression, diarrhoea, deep vein thrombosis are also identified, as parts of socalled ‘D’ syndrome. Early diagnosis is life saving due to potential aggressive profile and high risk of liver metastasis. NME as paraneoplastic syndrome may be present for months and even years until adequate recognition and therapy; it is remitted after successful pancreatic surgery. Thus the level of practitioners' awareness is essential. If surgery is not curative, debulking techniques may improve the clinical aspects and even the outcome in association with other procedures such as embolization of hepatic metastasis; ablation of radiofrequency type; medical therapy including chemotherapy, targeted therapy with mTOR inhibitors such as everolimus, PRRT (peptide receptor radiotherapy), and somatostatin analogues (including combinations of medical treatments). Increased awareness of the condition involves multidisciplinary practitioners.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Dermatology, ‘Elias’ Emergency University Hospital, 125100 Bucharest, Romania 2: Department of Endocrinology,‘C.I. Parhon’ National Institute of Endocrinology, 011863 Bucharest, Romania 3: Department of Gynecology, Emergency University Hospital, 050098 Bucharest, Romania 4: Department of Endocrinology, Clinical County Hospital, 400000 Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Publication date: October 1, 2020

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  • Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine aims to ensure the expedient publication, in both print and electronic format, of studies relating to biology, gene therapy, infectious disease, microbiology, molecular cardiology and molecular surgery. The journal welcomes studies pertaining to all aspects of molecular medicine, and studies relating to in vitro or in vivo experimental model systems relevant to the mechanisms of disease are also included.

    All materials submitted to this journal undergo the appropriate review via referees who are experts in this field. All materials submitted follow international guidelines with regard to approval of experiments on humans and animals.
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