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Open Access Various physiological functions derived from the C-terminus of APC protein and its abnormalities

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Professor Takao Senda is a researcher based in the Anatomy Department of Gifu University School of Medicine, Japan, who is exploring adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and whose current project is entitled ‘Various physiological functions derived from the C-terminus of APC protein and its abnormalities’. APC was discovered as a colon cancer suppressor gene, but it is distributed beyond the intestines throughout the body. Senda and his team are working to unravel the mysteries of the genes. ‘The APC gene is a tumour suppressor gene that was initially identified as the gene responsible for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) when mutated,’ Senda explains. ‘APC codes 2,843 amino acids of the large APC protein, which has a molecular weight of 300 kDa. APC functions as an intracellular regulator of the Wnt/?-catenin signal pathway, which mediates its tumour suppressing activity. APC has multiple domains that bind to various proteins, including ?-catenin, APC-stimulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Asef), microtubules, EB1, discs large (DLG), and PSD-95. The ?-catenin-binding domain, located in the centre of APC, is involved in tumour suppression, as evidenced by tumorigenicity of APC+/min mice that lack this domain.’ Five strands The team’s work is divided into five work packages (WP): mechanisms for the elongation of intestinal villi of the APC1638T mouse; mechanisms of schizophrenia-like behaviour disorder in the APC1638T mouse; mechanisms of gait abnormality in the APC1638T mouse; mechanisms of regulation of intracellular localisation of APC protein, and; differences of involvement of APC protein in Wnt signalling system comparatively in neurons and epithelial cells. In their work investigating the function and control of the Wnt signalling system, which transmits important signals related to cell processes including proliferation, differentiation and canceration, the team analysed genetically modified mice, looking at factors involved in the regulation of the Wnt signal system and other areas that are potentially involved such as DLG. The team has discovered that APC suppresses the Wnt signal system and suppresses excessive proliferation of cells. They observed that if abnormality occurs in APC, the Wnt signal system is excessively activated and colon cancer develops.
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Keywords: ?-CATENIN; ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI; APC; APC PROTEIN; APC-STIMULATED GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTOR; C-TERMINUS; COLON CANCER SUPPRESSOR GENE; DISCS LARGE; EB1; FAMILIAL ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS; INTRACELLULAR REGULATOR OF THE WNT/?-CATENIN SIGNAL PATHWAY; MICROTUBULES; PSD-95; TUMORIGENICITY; TUMOUR SUPPRESSING ACTIVITY

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2019

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