CZTSSe Solar Cells from Nanoparticle Inks
Despite its young history CZTSSe record efficiency stands at 12.6% and the major limitations are (i) a lower than expected open circuit voltage accompanied by a low efficiency at converting and collecting carriers from low energy photons; (ii) the difficulty in controlling the kesterite crystal structure throughout the fabrication process; and (iii) the use of hydrazine, a highly toxic chemical, in the fabrication process to achieve the record efficiencies. This project uses nanocrystal dispersions (inks) of CZTS synthesised from hot injection as the starting material. This technique can reliably control crystal structure, composition and doping and does not present any environmental risks. Inks are easily spin coated or sprayed on substrates and a heat treatment under selenium rich atmosphere promotes grain growth without loss of the crystal structure. In order to fabricate record efficiencies using this technique the microstructure of the absorber and back contact layers need to be engineered to provide large grains extending the full thickness of the absorber combined with a small interfacial layer to ensure a good ohmic contact.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: December 1, 2018
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