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Open Access Pioneering Next-Generation Smart Grids

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Power systems are going through a paradigm shift, due to the addition of numerous non-synchronous distributed generators, such as wind turbines and solar farms, and active loads connected through power electronic converters. This imposes unprecedented challenges to the stable and reliable operation of future power systems. It is shown that power electronic converters can be controlled to behave as virtual synchronous machines, also called cyber synchronous machines. This unifies and harmonizes the grid integration of all active players on the supply side, inside the network and on the load side with the synchronization mechanism of synchronous machines, leading to a unified lateral system architecture for next-generation smart grids. It also shifts the operation of power systems from centralized control to democratized interaction. A prominent feature of the next-generation smart grids governed by this architecture is that the low-level control of the distributed generators and active loads does not rely on communication, which significantly reduces cost and improves reliability and security. Another prominent feature is that the power electronic converters do not need a dedicated synchronization unit, which considerably improves performance.
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Keywords: CENTRALIZED CONTROL; CONTROL; CYBER SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES; CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS; DEMAND RESPONSE; DEMOCRATISATION OF POWER SYSTEMS; DEMORATIC INTERACTION; DISTRIBUTED GENERATION; DROOP CONTROL; ELECTRICAL VEHICLE; ENERGY STORAGE; FUTURE POWER SYSTEMS; GRID SUPPORT; GRID-FRIENDLY; INVERTERS; LATERAL POWER; LEGAL EQUALITY; MICROGRID; NEXT-GENERATION SMART GRID; PHASE-LOCKED LOOP; POWER CONVERTERS; POWER-ELECTRONICS-ENABLED AUTONOMOUS POWER SYSTEMS; PRIMARY FREQUENCY RESPONSE; RENEWABLE ENERGY; ROBUST DROOP CONTROL; RULE OF LAW; SELF-SYNCHRONIZATION; SOLAR POWER; SYNCHRONIZATION MECHANISM; SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES; SYNCHRONVERTER; SYNDEM; THIRD INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION; VIRTUAL SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES; WIND ENERGY

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 September 2017

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