Compositional dependence of silver ion incorporation into borosilicate glasses through staining for fabrication of graded index optical elements
The staining technique, which is a well known glass colouring method, is of potential use for the fabrication of graded index optical elements based on a glass substrate. We have studied the incorporation of silver into borosilicate glasses, 65SiO2.20B2O3.10R2O.5Al2O3 (R=Li, Na or K), and also the changes in the optical properties due to silver staining. The dependence of the silver incorporation behaviour on the kind of alkaline ions in the glass was investigated. After staining at 340°C for 12 h, 1·9×1018 and 2·7×1018 atoms/cm2 of silver were incorporated into lithium and sodium borosilicate glasses, respectively. This gave rise to an increase in the refractive index of ∼0·03–0·04 at the stained surface of these glasses, although the glasses were colourless and transparent. On the other hand, the amount of silver incorporated into the potassium borosilicate glass was only one third of the amounts for lithium and sodium borosilicate glasses, and the increase in the refractive index was less than 0·02. The difference in the silver incorporation behaviour is discussed from the viewpoint of ionic diffusion.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 2009