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Großfl ächiges Laserscanning im Alpenraum als Grundlage für die Vorhersage von alpinen Naturgefahren

[Laser scanning project provides foundation for predicting natural hazards in the Alps]

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German

Zur Vorhersage von Naturgefahren im Alpenraum, wie Überschwemmungen, Muren, Rutschungen, Felsstürzen und Lawinen, werden möglichst exakte Computermodelle benötigt. Eine wichtige Grundlage hierfür ist das Digitale Geländemodell (DGM; Frei & Rieger 2008). Die Qualität des DGM hängt maßgeblich von der Lage- und Höhengenauigkeit der erfassten Geländepunkte, der Punktdichte sowie der Aktualität ab. Airborne Laserscanning (ALS) hat sich als Verfahren mit einer hohen Genauigkeit und mit großer Punktdichte bewährt (Geist et al. 2005).

Das Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation Bayern (LVG) setzt bereits seit dem Jahr 1996 Airborne Laserscanning ein. Bis zum Jahr 2011 soll für ganz Bayern (70 551 km2) ein DGM aus Laserscanning verfügbar sein.

Die Gefährdung durch alpine Naturgefahren erstreckt sich häufig über Landesgrenzen hinweg. Um hierfür auch grenzüberschreitende Computermodelle erstellen zu können, ist ein homogenes DGM mit hoher Aktualität und Genauigkeit notwendig. In einem gemeinsamen Projekt haben die Länder Tirol und Bayern ein einheitliches DGM im Alpenraum mit hoher Genauigkeit geschaffen.

Dieses DGM eignet sich auch für unterschiedliche geowissenschaftliche Aufgabenstellungen. Einige Beispiele hierzu werden gezeigt.

Abstract

Computer models that are as precise as possible are required to predict natural hazards in the Alps, such as floods, mudflows, slides, rockfalls and avalanches. An important foundation for this is the Digital Terrain Model (DTM). The quality of the DTM depends significantly on point density, the position and height accuracy and the actuality. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) has proven to be a method with high precision and a large point density.

The Bavarian Office for Surveying and Geographic Information uses the technique of airborne laser scanning since 1996. By the year 2011 a DTM derived from airborne laser scanning will be available in Bavaria (70 551 km2).

The risk of alpine natural hazards often extends across national borders. For the generation of transnational computer models a homogeneous DTM with high precision and actuality is required. Bavaria and Tyrol cooperated in a common project and created a DTM with high accuracy in the Alps.

In alpine areas airborne laser scanning is significant complex in comparison to laser scanning in lowland. The technical specifications of the laser scanning campaign are a point density of 1 point per m2 in the Bavarian Alps and a height accuracy of 0.08 m (rms). Therefore the DTM is also appropriate for different geoscientific tasks. Some examples are shown. In the last decades the mass loss of glaciers has increased. ALS data provide a current 3-dimensional mapping of the terrain; in relation to older geodetic or cartographic data mass balances get obvious. An example in the Tyrolean Alps (Ötztaler Alpen) is shown where the slide of ice and rock mass endangers a water reservoir underneath. For the monitoring of the hazard zone several airborne laser scanning flight campaigns took place.
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Keywords: AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING; ALPS; BAVARIA; DIGITAL TERRAIN MODEL; MASS BALANCE; NATURAL HAZARDS; RELIEF; TYROL

Language: German

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: June 1, 2010

More about this publication?
  • Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften (ZDGG) is an international peer reviewed journal that accepts papers on research and applied topics in the Earth Sciences. It is published online and in print. One volume, consisting of four issues is published annually. The journal has been published by the German Geological Society since its foundation in 1848. It was relaunched in 2005.

    ZDGG invites the submission of English, German and French language papers from all fields of geology, hydrogeology, paleontology, tectonics, sedimentology, engineering geology and of course environmental geology to name a few. The editors of ZDGG also invite suggestions for thematic issues.

    Please note that ZDGG issues from Volume 170 are now available from the publisher's website at https://www.schweizerbart.de/journals/zdgg
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