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Bismuth minerals from the Stan Terg deposit (Trepça, Kosovo)

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The Bi-bearing sulfosalts and chalcogenides, ikunolite, babkinite, joséite-A, izoklakeite, cannizzarite, lillianite-gustavite and heyrovskýite, previously unknown in Kosovo, were identified in the Stan Terg deposit by means of electron microprobe analyses in samples from skarn and skarn-free mineral assemblages. Phase relationships among the minerals in the system Bi-Te-Pb-Ag-Cu indicate that they formed at different times with successive replacement of one mineral assemblage by the next, and do not represent decomposition products of high temperature Bi-bearing phases. The following replacement sequence is considered: lillianite/ gustavite+heyrovskýite+galena → izoklakeite-giessenite+cannizzarite → bismuthinite+native bismuth → bismuth chalcogenides (joséite-A, ikunolite, babkinite) → chalcopyrite. Ikunolite and babkinite show a low degree of S and Se substitution and higher content of Pb for Bi substitution, suggesting a potential ikunolite-babkinite solid solution. Joséite-A is the first tellurium mineral described from this locality. Lillianite homologues include lillianite (N = 4) and heyrovskýite (N = 7) of low degree of AgBi for 2Pb substitution and average substitution coefficients x = 0.21 and 0.17, respectively. Izoklakeite-giessenite from Stan Terg has an average Sb/(Sb+Bi) ratio of about 0.43. Other identified Bi-bearing minerals include cannizzarite, native bismuth, and bismuthinite. All described minerals are associated with galena with elevated Bi and Ag contents (0.02 Bi+Ag apfu). Native gold is spatially related with Bi mineralization. The bismuth-bearing phases at Stan Terg were formed during the retrograde evolution of the hydrothermal system under generally low-sulfidation and reduced fluid states in the temperature range from 350° to 250 °C.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: July 1, 2015

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  • Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry publishes thorough, detailed studies of up to 30 printed pages as well as short and concise papers and notes (less than 15 printed pages) on mineralogy, i.e. crystallography, crystal chemistry, petrology, geochemistry and economic mineralogy (mineral deposits).

    Beginning with 2005, Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogy (Abhandlungen) publish all papers formerly submitted to the two subjournals Abhandlungen and Monatshefte.
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