The relationship between dispositional forgiveness, empathy, and hope, on the one hand, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), on the other hand, was examined among Iranian veterans of the Iran-Iraq 1980–1988 conflict. Participants were administered the Forgivingness Questionnaire
(measuring lasting resentment, sensitivity to the circumstances of the offense, and unconditional forgiveness), the Empathy Quotient Scale (assessing cognitive empathy, social skills, and emotional reactivity), the Hope Scale (assessing personal feelings of agency and ability to find pathways),
and the Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. It was found that the higher the PTSD score, the higher the lasting resentment score and the lower all of the other scores, particularly agency and sensitivity to circumstances. The association between forgivingness
and PTSD was still significant once empathy and hope levels were controlled for.
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Document Type: Research Article
Department of Counselling and Psychology, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Counselling and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran
Department of Ethics, Institute of Advanced Studies, Paris, France
March 4, 2015
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