Parking restraint policy and urban vitality
The aim of the paper is to examine whether parking restraint policies may have impacts on the economic vitality of urban centres. Literature from empirical, attitudinal and modelling studies is reviewed within a structure based around a conceptual framework of parking impacts. The search for relevant material was undertaken both for the UK and overseas, but the discussion and conclusions were related to the UK context. Original modelling was undertaken and is reported here. This review found that as parking restraint policies have not been previously implemented with consistency or longevity, there is a lack of direct evidence, given that land-use impacts typically involve a long-term response. Furthermore, different methods of examining impacts have come to very different conclusions. Attitudinal evidence suggests that there is a high level of sensitivity to parking provision, whereas aggregate statistical studies tend to find only a weak relationship. The reasons underlying these differences are discussed. Land-use/transport models show impacts if there is sufficient change in generalized cost, although the spatial distribution of impacts, and impacts by household or employment disaggregation, vary considerably. Given the inconclusive nature of the evidence to date, only tentative policy implications can be drawn. Recommendations for further research are outlined, both for empirical study and for model enhancements.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Intsitute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK 2: David Simmonds Consultancy, 10 Jesus Lane, Cambridge, CB5 8BA, UK
Publication date: July 1, 2000