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Disjunction and conjunction fallacies in episodic memory

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It has recently been found that episodic memory displays analogues of the well-known disjunction and conjunction fallacies of probability judgement. The aim of the present research was, for the first time, to study these memory fallacies together under the same conditions, and test theoretical predictions about the reasons for each. The focus was on predictions about the influence of semantic gist, target versus context recollection, and proactive versus retroactive interference. Disjunction and conjunction fallacies increased in conditions in which subjects were able to form semantic connections among list words. In addition, disjunction fallacies were increased by manipulations that minimised proactive interference, whereas conjunction fallacies were increased by manipulations that minimised retroactive interference. That pattern suggests that disjunction fallacies are more dependent on target recollection, whereas conjunction fallacies are more dependent on context recollection.
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Keywords: Disjunction fallacy; conjunction fallacy; context recollection; gist processing; target recollection

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Human Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

Publication date: September 14, 2017

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