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True and false memory in the absence of perceptual identification

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Two experiments are reported in which, after attempting to identify a briefly flashed, masked test word, participants were asked to rate the likelihood that it had been presented in an earlier study list. Even when people were unable to identify such items, they demonstrated an ability to discriminate between those that were studied and those that were not studied; ratings given to studied items were significantly higher than ratings given to nonstudied items. This effect does not appear to be a data-driven phenomenon. In Experiment 1 it was found when the presentation modality was changed from study to test. In Experiment 2 false memory for unidentified items that were related to studied items was shown.
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Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA 2: Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

Publication date: March 1, 2004

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