Does Clock-watching Make You Clockwise?
French and Richards (1993) found that subjects asked to draw from memory a clock that had Roman numerals on its face typically represented the number four on the clock face as ''IV'' rather than the correct ''IIII'', whereas those merely asked to copy it typically drew ''IIII''. The current experiments followed the methodology of French and Richards, but then went on to examine the subsequent memorial representation of the number four. Subjects drew a clock with Roman numerals on its face, either from memory (with or without forewarning) or while the clock remained in full view. Subsequently, subjects were asked to recall the exact form in which the numbers were represented on the clock (Experiment 1) or were asked to recognise which of two clocks had been presented earlier (Experiment 2). Findings supported the idea that subjects in the copy condition were more likely than subjects in other conditions to draw the clock without invoking schematic knowledge of Roman numerals. The basic effect reported by French and Richards was replicated in both experiments. Furthermore, in both experiments, subjects who correctly drew the clock with the number four represented as ''IIII'' were more likely to misrepresent it as ''IV'' in the subsequent memory task if they were in the copy condition rather than the two memory conditions. The results are interpreted in terms of schema theory.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 1996