Skip to main content

Embeddedness and Hybrid Organisations in Malaysia’s Urban Heritage Governance

Buy Article:

$60.00 + tax (Refund Policy)

How should we understand the role of hybrid organisations in urban heritage governance? What explains their particular hybrid forms? Those questions were addressed by studying two Malaysian hybrids: George Town World Heritage Incorporated and Think City. They are in charge of urban renewal and heritage preservation in Malaysia’s Penang State. Interviews and participant observation revealed how different types of embeddedness influence the internal and external dynamics underpinning the organisations’ effectiveness. They are shaped by local historical and institutional conditions and staffed by individuals recruited through networks spanning different scales in society and government. The hybrid organisations’ networks involve collaborations with local and national governments, with other state-linked institutions, with international organisations, and with civil society. The hybrid organisations have arguably provided more dynamic protection of George Town’s heritage, but the gains have yet to be evenly distributed among the local community. The findings also suggest that hybrids in developing economies are less a product of austerity and more a reflection of local political, geographical, and social contingencies.

Keywords: Heritage management; Malaysia; Quangos; hybrid organisations; institutional networks; urban governance

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Institute of Emerging Market Studies, Hong Kong SAR, 2: Hong Kong Baptist University, Department of Government and International Studies, Hong Kong SAR,

Publication date: April 26, 2023

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content