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Research collaborations involve co-production and exchange of knowledge across organisational boundaries. They involve governance of intellectual property rights and partners' use of collectively produced knowledge. The principal findings arise from case studies of consortia governance in biotechnology and software and substantial variety in arrangements is identified. This variety may be explained by the appropriability of knowledge in particular research domains as well as by the nature of the knowledge generated. Consequences of governance rules are explored for European research consortia and for collective standards making activities. The analysis indicates several policy conclusions: government policy has an important role in overcoming market failures in consortia formation; adoption of any uniform intellectual property rights model for consortia would be likely to reduce research productivity; policies aimed at stimulating consortia formation must take account of the nature of knowledge that is to be exchanged.
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Keywords: Collaborations; Intellectual property rights; Joint ventures; Research; Science; Strategic alliances

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: IMRI (Institut pour le Management de la Recherche et de l'Innovation), Place du Maréchal De Lattre de Tassigny, Université Paris-Dauphine, 75775 Paris, Cedex 16, France 2: SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, Mantell Building, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton East Sussex, BN1 9RF, UK

Publication date: January 1, 2002

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