Facilitators and regulators: psychometric properties of maternal orientation measures in pregnancy
Objective: This research compared psychometric properties of three maternal orientation measures in pregnancy: the antenatal Facilitator Regulator Questionnaire (FRQ), the Placental Paradigm (PPQ) subscales, and the Antenatal Maternal Orientation Measure-Revised (AMOM-R), a modified AMOM developed for this study. Background: Maternal orientation is a well-established theoretical construct with growing empirical support. To direct future research, we examine relationships among measures and establish reliability and construct validity for each. Method: The sample of 230 pregnant women responded to an online survey gauging antenatal maternal orientation, attachment style and childrearing beliefs. Results: The AMOM-R had acceptable internal consistency and generated the most theoretically expected relationships. Women expecting their second or subsequent baby, who had planned pregnancies, and those not working full-time were higher on facilitator and lower on regulator tendencies (ps<.05). Women who endorsed more rigid childrearing beliefs were lower on facilitator and higher on regulator tendencies (ps<.05). Finally, women who reported higher anxiety over relationships and/or higher scores for discomfort with closeness scored higher on regulator tendencies (ps<.01). No comparable results emerged for facilitator orientation. Conclusion: We recommend the AMOM-R as the most robust antenatal maternal orientation measure. Findings are discussed with regard to sample characteristics and implications for future research.
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