Based on empirical data from 18 international airlines from 2008 to 2014, this article analyzes the impact of EU emission rights on airline environmental efficiency and calculates the airlines’ emission allowances. Then, we propose a Network Environmental Slack-Based Measure model
to discuss the change in efficiency when carbon prices are set at 10, 20 and 30 Euros. The main findings are as follows: (1) Eva Air is the airline with the highest average overall efficiency. (2) For most airlines, their efficiency shows little difference from the original situation, regardless
of the carbon price. (3) For airlines with large changes in efficiency, the cost or income from emission rights not only affects the operating expenses but also the fleet size.
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