Institutional Constraints to Environmentally Sound Integrated Land Use and Transport Policies: Experiences from the Norwegian Integrated Land Use and Transport Planning Scheme
The Norwegian Integrated Land Use and Transport Planning Scheme TP10 was launched in 1991 as a responseto growing concern about the environmental effects of road transport in Norway's largest cities. Its main goal was to develop transport and land use policies leading to reductions in the growth of car use and transport demand. The purpose of this paper is to explain and discuss why the scheme on the whole failed to produce the intended policies. One reason was that the planning process in the scheme was dominated by the traditional transport planning and implementation authorities. The scheme was also linked to the national roads planning process in a way which diverted TP10 from its stated environmental goals. The paper concludes that radical changes in existing policies should be accompanied by institutional reform.
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