Integrated Environmental Management: Moving from Theory to Practice
Integrated environmental management (IEM) and related concepts promoting holistic approaches to environmental management have been evolving rapidly over the past few decades. Although considerable research has examined the substantive dimensions of these concepts, practitioners have forged ahead applying IEM without a clear operational model. The authors link elements of ecosystem management and related fields with interaction to offer a new operational definition and practice paradigm. Interaction among stakeholders and with the public generally is the key operational component for IEM. Focusing on stakeholder interactions, the authors analyse the principle communication and conflict resolution tools employed in integrated approaches. Two illustrative cases from the state of Wisconsin demonstrate the application of interaction techniques and tools in pursuing integrated environmental management.
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