Spirituality is a phenomenon which continues to attract much interest in the Western culture. Throughout the years, it has changed in form and developed in understanding. It has become unprecedentedly broad and embraced by many people, even those who do not consider themselves to be
religious. Indeed, spirituality is a subject of debate within academic and non-academic circles regarding its shape, place, function, and definition. This debate and the academic investigation reveals that as a field of study it is undergoing intense and vigorous development. However, there
are a number of conceptual deficiencies which need attention, namely; identity and method. The aim of this study is to develop the concept of spirituality according to the current European population. The study applies Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) and finds current spirituality functioning
as a three-dimensional model composed of transcendence, immanence, and purpose. This concept is predicted by 13 independent variables. The findings conclude that current spirituality is a person’s individual existential dimension, being subject to change through the influence of various
psychological, religious and social factors. The findings of the research describe its practical implication within formational social fields such as education, counselling, and psychotherapy.
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quantitative research methods;
structural equation modelling (SEM)
Document Type: Research Article
Department of Psychology, University of Economics and Human Sciences, Warsaw, Poland
Department of Education, Marino Institute of Education, Dublin, Ireland
Department of Business, Institute of Technology, Sligo, Ireland
Department of Psychology, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK
April 3, 2019
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