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Post-normal science

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The term ‘post-normal science’ (PNS) was coined by science and technology philosophers Silvio Funtowicz and Jerome Ravetz in the years around 1990. It was developed in numerous publications in subsequent years, mainly in the journal Futures (Funtowicz & Ravetz, 1993). It’s now become an accepted, even mainstream, term in many areas of discourse about science and technology, in particular in relation to scientific advice for policy. It both defines the context in which science and technology now exist, and recommends ways of making science and technology responsive to that context.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2018

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