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Free Content The 'Layers of Coping' Theory: A New Model of Pain Coping Following Longitudinal Repeated Measures State/trait Analysis of Pain Related Coping Strategies

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The Coping Strategies Questionnaire 24 (CSQ24) is seen as a stable tool to measure pain related coping strategies across multiple studies and includes four subscales; Catastrophising, Cognitive Coping, Diversion and Reinterpreting. These strategies have never been placed within a state and trait frame work.


The CSQ24 was administered to back pain patients undergoing physiotherapy before and after treatment and at six and twelve months following discharge. Other measures of pain and disability were also taken to provide context regarding the changing nature of the sample over time.


Participant level analysis in the context of the existing literature surrounding coping has allowed novel placement of Catastrophising and Cognitive Coping as a state and trait respectively. Diversion and Reinterpreting are posited as representing a behavioural layer of coping with Reinterpreting being skills based. A new 'layers of coping' theory is proposed.


Pain coping strategies measured by the CSQ24, and potentially other similar tools, may benefit from being viewed within a state and trait framework. This may affect their interpretation and conclusions gained from that interpretation. Methodologically the importance of participant level analysis is demonstrated.

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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: June 1, 2015

More about this publication?
  • Pain and Rehabilitation is a peer-reviewed, Bi-annual journal of the Physiotherapy Pain Association and special interest group of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. The journal comprises a range of different articles types from orignial articles to systematic reviews and letters around the topic of pain and rehabilitation. The journal is multidisciplinary in its focus and welcomes submissions from all professionals working in this multidisciplinary field. the abstract of all articles will be freely avilable online. Full text articles are available free online to members of the Physiotherapy Pain Association, and access to individual PDF articles can be purchased by non members.
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