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Medication Adherence Changes in Blacks with Diabetes: A Mixed Methods Study

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Objectives: In this study, we conducted a longitudinal evaluation of changes in medication adherence and the role of psychosocial and interpersonal factors in these changes among Blacks with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and determined barriers and facilitators of T2DM medication adherence. Methods: We used an explanatory sequential mixed methods design for a sample of 287 black adult patients with T2DM in Wisconsin. Two surveys quantitatively evaluated changes in medication adherence, psychosocial factors, and interpersonal factors over time. We conducted 10 semi-structured qualitative interviews to explore participants' perceptions of these changes. Data integration of the quantitative and qualitative findings elucidated barriers and facilitators of medication adherence. Results: Increased adherence was significantly correlated with less concerns about medicines (r = -0.31), higher self-efficacy (r = 0.47), lesser depressive symptoms (r = -0.26), and lesser negative illness perceptions (r = -0.26) at both baseline and follow-up. Patient perceptions of adherence changes included adherence motivators, social support, and complex medication regimens. Integration showed that barriers and facilitators both existed in individuals who had an increase or a decrease in adherence over time. Conclusions: Specific beliefs of Blacks towards T2DM medications must be addressed to improve their adherence. Interventions must be tailored using interpersonal factors.


Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Social and Administrative Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison 2: Associate Scientist, Sonderegger Research Center, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison 3: School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison 4: Associate Professor, Social and Administrative Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison WI., Email: [email protected]

Publication date: March 1, 2020

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  • The American Journal of Health Behavior seeks to improve the quality of life through multidisciplinary health efforts in fostering a better understanding of the multidimensional nature of both individuals and social systems as they relate to health behaviors.

    The Journal aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the impact of personal attributes, personality characteristics, behavior patterns, social structure, and processes on health maintenance, health restoration, and health improvement; to disseminate knowledge of holistic, multidisciplinary approaches to designing and implementing effective health programs; and to showcase health behavior analysis skills that have been proven to affect health improvement and recovery.

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