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Open Access Learning early about peanut-triggered food protein‐induced enterocolitis syndrome

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Food protein‐induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-immunoglobulin E mediated food allergy that typically presents with repetitive emesis and may be associated with lethargy, marked pallor, hypotension, hypothermia, and/or diarrhea. Although many foods are known to cause FPIES, peanut-triggered FPIES is emerging due to changes in the feeding practice guidelines, which recommends early peanut introduction in infants.


We aimed to characterize peanut-triggered acute FPIES cases in our pediatric population and to describe their attributes, treatment, and outcomes. We hypothesized that increases in the incidence of peanut-triggered FPIES coincided with implementation of the guidelines for early peanut introduction.


A retrospective chart review was conducted of pediatric patients who presented to Phoenix Children’s Hospital Emergency Department and subspecialty clinics during a 6-year period (January 2013 to September 2019).


Thirty-three cases of patients with acute FPIES were identified, five of which were peanut triggered. In those patients with peanut-triggered FPIES, the median age for peanut introduction was 7 months (range, 5‐24 months). Two patients had positive peanut skin-prick test results. All five cases were identified in the past 2 years (2018 to 2019). No peanut-triggered reactions were documented in the preceding 4-year period (2013 to 2017).


Peanut may be an emerging trigger of acute FPIES, coinciding with an earlier introduction of peanut in the infant diet after implementation of the new addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy. Oats and rice were the most common triggers of acute FPIES in our cohort. Further study will help clarify the significance and reproducibility of these findings.

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Keywords: Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES); oral food challenge; peanut

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: From the Division of Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona 2: Asthma and Allergy Associates of Florida, Miami, Florida 3: Mississippi Asthma and Allergy Clinic, Ridgeland, Mississippi, and 4: Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona

Publication date: April 1, 2021

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