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Effect of indoor air quality on the development of rhinitis in an urban population in Poland

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Background:

Indoor air significantly impacts the incidence of rhinitis among residents of urban agglomerations.

Objective:

To assess the impact of indoor air pollution on rhinitis.

Methods:

Data were collected by using an European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) and International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) standardized questionnaires (N = 18,617), and medical examinations were carried out (N = 4783) in selected Polish regions. For statistical analysis, the odds ratio (OR) was calculated with a 95% confidence interval to detect factors associated with rhinitis. The Wald test was performed to assess the significance of those factors. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results:

The most important factors associated with allergic rhinitis declared by adults, ages 20‐44 years were the following: the age of the buildings (OR 1.34), presence of central heating system (OR 1.19), gas furnace used to heat the house (OR 1.19), solid-fuel stove (OR 1.92), and bottled-gas stove (OR 1.66). More frequent declarations of nonallergic rhinitis in the study group were associated with the use of a central heating system (children ages 6‐7 years: OR 1.21; children ages 13‐14 years: OR 1.22; and adults, ages 20‐44 years: OR 1.27), solid-fuel stove (children ages 6‐7 years: OR 2.95; children ages 13‐14 years: OR 2.86; adults, ages 20‐44 years: OR 2.02), and bottled-gas stove (children ages 6‐7 years: OR 1.89; children ages 13‐14 years: OR 1.88; adults, ages 20‐44 years: OR 2.06). Diagnosed seasonal allergic rhinitis in adults, ages 20‐44 years was associated with the year when the building was constructed (1970‐1990) (OR 1.93) and the presence of a central heating system (OR 1.85). The year of construction of a building (1946‐1969) (OR 4.84) as well as the use of central heating (OR 1.79) were causes of allergies to molds in the group of children ages 6‐7 years, whereas sensitization to Dermatophagoides. pteronyssinus (OR 1.62) and Dermatophagoides farinae (OR 1.78) in children ages 6‐7-years was associated with the presence of a central heating system. In children ages 13‐14 years, the use of a solid-fuel stove was a cause of sensitization to D. farinae (OR 1.62).

Conclusion:

The age of the building, home heating systems, and pollution emitted by cooking appliances have a significant impact on the incidence of rhinitis. The highlights of the study included the following: (1) the age and condition of the building, the use of heating devices, stoves, and also mold allergens and house-dust mites contributed to a higher incidence of rhinitis, mainly among adults, ages 20‐44 years; (2) gas-storage tanks and solid fuels contribute to rhinitis in the group of children ages 6‐7 years and children ages 13‐14 years.
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Keywords: Age of building; indoor environmental factors; rhinitis

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: From the Department of Prevention of Environmental Hazards and Allergology Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Pol

Publication date: November 1, 2018

More about this publication?
  • Allergy and Asthma Proceedings is a peer reviewed publication dedicated to distributing timely scientific research regarding advancements in the knowledge and practice of allergy, asthma and immunology. Its primary readership consists of allergists and pulmonologists.

    The goal of the Proceedings is to publish articles with a predominantly clinical focus which directly impact quality of care for patients with allergic disease and asthma and by having the potential to directly impact the quality of patient care. AAP welcomes the submission of original works including peer-reviewed original research and clinical trial results. Additionally, as the official journal of the Eastern Allergy Conference (EAC), AAP will publish content from EAC poster sessions as well as review articles derived from EAC lectures.

    Featured topics include asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, food allergies, allergic skin diseases, diagnostic techniques, allergens, and treatment modalities. Published material includes peer-reviewed original research, clinical trials and review articles.

    Articles marked "F" offer free full text for personal noncommercial use only.

    The journal is indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Science Citation Index Expanded, plus the National Library of Medicine's PubMed service.
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