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Interleukin 33 and interleukin 4 regulate interleukin 31 gene expression and secretion from human laboratory of allergic diseases 2 mast cells stimulated by substance P and/or immunoglobulin E

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Cytokine interleukin (IL) 31 has emerged as an important component of allergic and inflammatory diseases associated with pruritus, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and mastocytosis. Mast cells (MC) are stimulated by allergic and nonallergic triggers, and play a critical role in such diseases by secreting histamine and tryptase as well as cytokines and chemokines. IL-33 has been reported to augment MC responses, but its effect on secretion of IL-31 is not known.


To investigate whether IL-33 can stimulate the secretion of IL-31 from cultured human MCs and whether this response is augmented by either the neuropeptide substance P (SP) or immunoglobulin E (IgE) and anti-IgE in the absence or presence of IL-4.


Laboratory of Allergic Diseases (LAD2) human MCs were cultured in StemProH-34 SFM medium supplemented by stem cell factor and were stimulated either with IL-33 (10 ng /mL) or SP (2 μM), or preincubated with IgE (1 μg/mL) overnight, and then stimulated with anti-IgE (1 μg/mL) for 24 hours. IL-31 gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.


IL-33 (10 ng/mL) induces IL-31 gene expression, synthesis, and secretion from LAD2 cells in the absence of degranulation, whereas SP and IgE on their own have no effect. However, the effect of IL-33 is augmented by SP (2 μM) and/or IgE and anti-IgE (1 μg/mL both) and especially their combination. Moreover, this response is significantly further increased when LAD2 cells are cultured in the presence of IL-4.


These findings provide evidence that IL-33 induced secretion of IL-31 from LAD2 MC, an action augmented by novel neuroimmune interactions that may help in the development of new treatments of allergic and inflammatory diseases, especially AD and mastocytosis.
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Keywords: IL-31; IL-33; IL-4; IgE/ anti-IgE; inflammation; mast cells; substance P

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Laboratory of Molecular Immunopharmacology and Drug Discovery, Department of Integrative Physiology and Pathobiology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston. Massachusetts, USA 2: First Department of Dermatology, A. Syggros Hospital, Athens University Medical School, Athens, Greece

Publication date: March 1, 2018

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  • Allergy and Asthma Proceedings is a peer reviewed publication dedicated to distributing timely scientific research regarding advancements in the knowledge and practice of allergy, asthma and immunology. Its primary readership consists of allergists and pulmonologists.

    The goal of the Proceedings is to publish articles with a predominantly clinical focus which directly impact quality of care for patients with allergic disease and asthma and by having the potential to directly impact the quality of patient care. AAP welcomes the submission of original works including peer-reviewed original research and clinical trial results. Additionally, as the official journal of the Eastern Allergy Conference (EAC), AAP will publish content from EAC poster sessions as well as review articles derived from EAC lectures.

    Featured topics include asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, food allergies, allergic skin diseases, diagnostic techniques, allergens, and treatment modalities. Published material includes peer-reviewed original research, clinical trials and review articles.

    Articles marked "F" offer free full text for personal noncommercial use only.

    The journal is indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Science Citation Index Expanded, plus the National Library of Medicine's PubMed service.
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