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Heterogeneity of asthma and the risk of celiac disease in children

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Although human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and HLA-DQ genes and gluten play crucial roles in developing celiac disease (CD), most patients with these risk factors still do not develop CD, which indicates additional unrecognized risk factors.


To determine the association between asthma and the risk of CD in children.


We conducted a population-based retrospective case-control study in children who resided in Olmsted County, Minnesota. We identified children with CD (cases) between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2014, and compared these with children without CD (controls) (1:2 matching). Asthma status was ascertained by using the predetermined asthma criteria (PAC) and the asthma predictive index (API). Data analysis included conditional logistic regression models and an unsupervised network analysis by using an independent phenome-wide association scan (PheWAS) data set.


Although asthma status as determined by using PAC was not associated with the risk of CD (odds ratio [OR] 1.4 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.8‐2.5]; p = 0.2), asthma status by using the API was significantly associated (OR 2.8 [95% CI, 1.3‐6.0]; p = 0.008). A subgroup analysis indicated that children with both asthma as determined by using PAC and a family history of asthma had an increased risk of CD compared with those without asthma (OR 2.28 [95% CI, 1.11‐4.67]; p = 0.024). PheWAS data showed a cluster of asthma single nucleotide polymorphisms and patients with CD.


A subgroup of children with asthma who also had a family history of asthma seemed to be at an increased risk of CD, and, thus, the third factor that underlies the risk of CD might be related to genetic factors for asthma. Heterogeneity of asthma plays a role in determining the risk of asthma-related comorbidity.
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Keywords: API; HLA; IL-15; PheWAS; atopy; comorbidity; family history; genetic factor; gluten; population-based

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2018

More about this publication?
  • Allergy and Asthma Proceedings is a peer reviewed publication dedicated to distributing timely scientific research regarding advancements in the knowledge and practice of allergy, asthma and immunology. Its primary readership consists of allergists and pulmonologists.

    The goal of the Proceedings is to publish articles with a predominantly clinical focus which directly impact quality of care for patients with allergic disease and asthma and by having the potential to directly impact the quality of patient care. AAP welcomes the submission of original works including peer-reviewed original research and clinical trial results. Additionally, as the official journal of the Eastern Allergy Conference (EAC), AAP will publish content from EAC poster sessions as well as review articles derived from EAC lectures.

    Featured topics include asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, food allergies, allergic skin diseases, diagnostic techniques, allergens, and treatment modalities. Published material includes peer-reviewed original research, clinical trials and review articles.

    Articles marked "F" offer free full text for personal noncommercial use only.

    The journal is indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Science Citation Index Expanded, plus the National Library of Medicine's PubMed service.
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