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Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of albuterol multidose dry powder inhaler and albuterol hydrofluoroalkane in children with asthma

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Many children struggle with the use of albuterol hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers. Albuterol multidose dry powder inhaler (MDPI) may simplify rescue bronchodilator use in children.


To compare the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and tolerability of albuterol MDPI and albuterol HFA after a single inhaled dose in children with asthma.


This single-center, open-label, two-period crossover study randomized children to albuterol MDPI or HFA 180 μg on two treatment days with a 4- to 14-day washout. Plasma albuterol concentrations were measured before the dose and up to 10 hours after the dose to determine the primary PK values of area under the plasma concentration‐versus‐time curve from time 0 to the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t), maximum observed concentration (Cmax), and AUC from time 0 extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-inf). Heart rate and blood pressure before the dose and after the dose were monitored for PD effects, and adverse events (AE) were monitored for overall safety.


Fifteen children, ages 6‐11 years, were included (PK, n = 13 for time to Cmax and terminal half-life of elimination; n = 12 for AUC and Cmax due to incomplete data). AUC0-t (geometric mean ratio [GMR] 1.056 [90% confidence interval {CI}, 0.88‐1.268]) and AUC0-inf (GMR 0.971 [90% CI, 0.821‐1.147]) were comparable between treatments. Cmax was larger for albuterol MDPI versus HFA (GMR 1.340 [90% CI, 1.098‐1.636]). PD parameters between the treatments were comparable. No deaths, serious AEs, treatment-emergent AEs, or withdrawals due to AEs were reported for either treatment.


Albuterol MDPI and albuterol HFA had comparable PK and PD in children after a single 180-μg dose. identifiers NCT01899144 and NCT02126839.
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Keywords: Pharmacokinetics; albuterol; asthma; children; dry powder inhaler; hydrofluoroalkane; pediatric; pharmacodynamics; safety; short-acting β2 adrenergic agonist

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: September 1, 2016

This article was made available online on August 12, 2016 as a Fast Track article with title: "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of albuterol multidose dry powder inhaler and albuterol hydrofluoroalkane in children with asthma ".

More about this publication?
  • Allergy and Asthma Proceedings is a peer reviewed publication dedicated to distributing timely scientific research regarding advancements in the knowledge and practice of allergy, asthma and immunology. Its primary readership consists of allergists and pulmonologists.

    The goal of the Proceedings is to publish articles with a predominantly clinical focus which directly impact quality of care for patients with allergic disease and asthma and by having the potential to directly impact the quality of patient care. AAP welcomes the submission of original works including peer-reviewed original research and clinical trial results. Additionally, as the official journal of the Eastern Allergy Conference (EAC), AAP will publish content from EAC poster sessions as well as review articles derived from EAC lectures.

    Featured topics include asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, food allergies, allergic skin diseases, diagnostic techniques, allergens, and treatment modalities. Published material includes peer-reviewed original research, clinical trials and review articles.

    Articles marked "F" offer free full text for personal noncommercial use only.

    The journal is indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Science Citation Index Expanded, plus the National Library of Medicine's PubMed service.
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