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Physician approaches to beta-lactam use in patients with penicillin hypersensitivity

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Beta-lactam antibiotics are widely used, but hypersensitivity reactions are common and difficult to manage. This study was designed to identify lack of knowledge regarding the safe use of alternative beta-lactams in penicillin-allergic patients and assess management differences between allergists and nonallergists. An electronic physician survey was sent to 623 providers in allergy, internal medicine, pediatrics, and family medicine, querying beta-lactam use in patients with a history of penicillin allergy. A total of 110 (17.7%) surveys were completed. For patients with a prior maculopapular rash to penicillin, most providers were uncomfortable prescribing penicillins again, although they would use other beta-lactams. In patients with an exfoliative dermatitis to penicillin, 46% of responders would not prescribe any beta-lactam again. For patients with a positive skin test to penicillin, only 45.1% of nonallergists were comfortable prescribing monobactams versus 62.5% of allergists; 30.3% of all responders would give a carbapenem. In patients with urticaria to penicillin, pediatricians were the most comfortable prescribing third- or fourth-generation cephalosporins. Providers (both allergists and nonallergists) were unfamiliar with the safety of prescribing penicillin in patients with history of maculopapular rash, the safety of monobactams, and low cross-reactivity with carbapenems in penicillin-allergic individuals. Nonallergists were also unfamiliar with the usefulness of penicillin skin testing. Improved education is needed to address these areas. Additionally, we found variability in responses regarding exfoliative dermatitis and comfort prescribing cephalosporins in patients with suspected IgE-mediated drug allergy to penicillin, highlighting the need for additional research in these areas.
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Keywords: Beta-lactam; carbapenems; cephalosporins; drug allergy; exfoliative dermatitis; maculopapular rash; management; monobactams; penicillin; physician survey

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2012

More about this publication?
  • Allergy and Asthma Proceedings is a peer reviewed publication dedicated to distributing timely scientific research regarding advancements in the knowledge and practice of allergy, asthma and immunology. Its primary readership consists of allergists and pulmonologists.

    The goal of the Proceedings is to publish articles with a predominantly clinical focus which directly impact quality of care for patients with allergic disease and asthma and by having the potential to directly impact the quality of patient care. AAP welcomes the submission of original works including peer-reviewed original research and clinical trial results. Additionally, as the official journal of the Eastern Allergy Conference (EAC), AAP will publish content from EAC poster sessions as well as review articles derived from EAC lectures.

    Featured topics include asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, food allergies, allergic skin diseases, diagnostic techniques, allergens, and treatment modalities. Published material includes peer-reviewed original research, clinical trials and review articles.

    Articles marked "F" offer free full text for personal noncommercial use only.

    The journal is indexed in Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Science Citation Index Expanded, plus the National Library of Medicine's PubMed service.
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