Sinusitis: Viral, bacterial, or fungal and what is the role of staph?
Recently, it has been recognized that inflammation is the major cause of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) rather than bacterial infection. Fungi have emerged as a possible pathogenic agent that drives CRS. One clear-cut group of fungal sinusitis can be divided into invasive and noninvasive. The condition that the allergist is most likely to see is allergic fungal sinusitis. Generally, it appears in atopic, immunocompetent, adolescents and young adults and is marked by the presence of nasal polyps and allergic mucin, which includes eosinophils, Charcot-Leyden crystals, and fungal hyphae. Computer tomographic imaging shows sinus opacification with hyperdense areas. Treatment has been successful with definitive nasosinus surgery and long-term oral prednisone. There is some evidence that fungi also may account for a large percentage of the remaining CRS patients. In this instance, the immune response to common airborne fungi appears to be IgG mediated rather than IgE mediated. Promising therapeutic results have been seen with intranasal antifungal agents but larger multicenter double-blinded placebo-controlled studies are needed. Another unanswered question includes the possible role of staphylococcus-derived enterotoxins in the pathogenesis of CRS.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: November 1, 2006
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- Allergy and Asthma Proceedings is a peer reviewed publication dedicated to distributing timely scientific research regarding advancements in the knowledge and practice of allergy, asthma and immunology. Its primary readership consists of allergists and pulmonologists.
The goal of the Proceedings is to publish articles with a predominantly clinical focus which directly impact quality of care for patients with allergic disease and asthma and by having the potential to directly impact the quality of patient care. AAP welcomes the submission of original works including peer-reviewed original research and clinical trial results. Additionally, as the official journal of the Eastern Allergy Conference (EAC), AAP will publish content from EAC poster sessions as well as review articles derived from EAC lectures.
Featured topics include asthma, rhinitis, sinusitis, food allergies, allergic skin diseases, diagnostic techniques, allergens, and treatment modalities. Published material includes peer-reviewed original research, clinical trials and review articles.
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