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Open Access Canker and decline diseases caused by soil- and airborne Phytophthora species in forests and woodlands

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Most members of the oomycete genus Phytophthora are primary plant pathogens. Both soil- and airborne Phytophthora species are able to survive adverse environmental conditions with enduring resting structures, mainly sexual oospores, vegetative chlamydospores and hyphal aggregations. Soilborne Phytophthora species infect fine roots and the bark of suberized roots and the collar region with motile biflagellate zoospores released from sporangia during wet soil conditions. Airborne Phytophthora species infect leaves, shoots, fruits and bark of branches and stems with caducous sporangia produced during humid conditions on infected plant tissues and dispersed by rain and wind splash. During the past six decades, the number of previously unknown Phytophthora declines and diebacks of natural and semi-natural forests and woodlands has increased exponentially, and the vast majority of them are driven by introduced invasive Phytophthora species. Nurseries in Europe, North America and Australia show high infestation rates with a wide range of mostly exotic Phytophthora species. Planting of infested nursery stock has proven to be the main pathway of Phytophthora species between and within continents. This review provides insights into the history, distribution, aetiology, symptomatology, dynamics and impact of the most important canker, decline and dieback diseases caused by soil- and airborne Phytophthora species in forests and natural ecosystems of Europe, Australia and the Americas.

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Keywords: DISEASE MANAGEMENT; EPIDEMIC; FOREST DIEBACK; INVASIVE PATHOGENS; NURSERY INFESTATION; ROOT ROT

Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: June 30, 2018

This article was made available online on April 30, 2018 as a Fast Track article with title: "Canker and decline diseases caused by soil- and airborne Phytophthora species in forests and woodlands".

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  • Persoonia aims to publish papers dealing with molecular phylogeny and evolution of fungi. A further aim is to promote fungal taxonomy by employing a polythetic approach to clarify the true phylogeny and relationships within the kingdom Fungi. The journal publishes high-quality papers elucidating known and novel fungal taxa at the DNA level, and also strives to present novel insights into evolutionary processes and relationships. Papers to be considered include research articles and reviews.

    Papers are published using a Fast Track system. This implies that the papers are immediately published online and freely available through the internet via this website. Volumes appear twice a year (June and December). From Volume 36 onwards (2016) hard copy volumes will only be made available through printing-on-demand. The issues can be ordered separately through the Publication Division of Naturalis Biodiversity Center; e-mail: [email protected]

    Persoonia is a journal published jointly by the Naturalis Biodiversity Center and the Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute.
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