Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Groups of Established Smokers after a Decade of Smoking
To investigate tools for evaluation of smoking-associated disease initiation and progression, we examined basic clinical parameters and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk, in a group of healthy volunteers with an average 10-year smoking history. A small cross-sectional study of never-smokers, moderate smokers and smokers was performed. Caucasians were recruited to match pre-defined cigarette tar yields and cigarettes smoked per day. For haematological parameters, significant differences between never-smokers and all female smokers combined were seen for haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, total leucocyte count, neutrophil count and lymphocyte count. For all male smokers combined, only total leucocyte count was statistically different. Analysis of exhaled CO and other smoke exposure biomarker (nicotine and its metabolites) data showed a statistically significant increase in all groups of smokers with a trend related to the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Thromboxane urinary metabolites 11-deydro-thromboxane B2 and 2,3-dinor-thromboxane B2 were statistically significantly elevated in smokers. Significant statistical differences between smokers with approximately 10 years of smoking history and non-smokers in white cells count, hemoglobin and thromboxane turnover were seen, although they did not reach levels associated with overt diseases. These data could provide insight into early biomarkers predictive of risk for coronary and vascular disease.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy 2: Consultant to British American Tobacco GR&D, Southampton, UK 3: British American Tobacco, GR&D Regents Park Road, Southampton, UK 4: British American Tobacco Italia S.p.A., Rome, Italy
Publication date: April 1, 2009
- Formerly Pharmacology & Toxicology