DNA and RNA binding by the Wilms' tumour gene 1 (WT1) protein +KTS and −KTS isoforms—From initial observations to recent global genomic analyses
The Wilms' tumour gene 1 protein (WT1) is a zinc finger transcription factor found indispensable for foetal development. WT1 has also been implicated in the development of tumours in several organ systems, including acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Four main WT1 isoforms come from 2 alternative splice events. One alternative splice results in the inclusion or exclusion of 3 amino acids, KTS, between zinc fingers 3 and 4 in the WT1 protein. The KTS insert has been extensively investigated due to the functional implications for DNA and RNA binding. In this review, we provide an overview of the research into the isoforms containing or lacking the KTS insert in leukaemic cells, as well as the research into the binding patterns of the WT1 −KTS and +KTS isoforms to DNA and RNA. Finally, we connect the results of the DNA binding research to the ChIP‐CHIP and ChIP‐Seq investigations into the global genomic binding of the WT1 protein that have recently been performed.
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