Nanoparticle delivery systems, general approaches, and their implementation in multiple myeloma
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy that remains incurable, with relapse rates >90%. The main limiting factor for the effective use of chemotherapies in MM is the serious side effects caused by these drugs. The emphasis in cancer treatment has shifted from cytotoxic, non‐specific chemotherapies to molecularly targeted and rationally designed therapies showing greater efficacy and fewer side effects. Traditional chemotherapy has shown several disadvantages such as lack of targeting capabilities, systemic toxicity, and side effects; low therapeutic index, as well as most anticancer drugs, has poor water solubility. Nanoparticle delivery systems (NPs) are capable of targeting large doses of chemotherapies into the target area while sparing healthy tissues, overcoming the limitations of traditional chemotherapy. Here, we review the current state of the art in nanoparticle‐based strategies designed to treat MM. Many nanoparticle delivery systems have been studied for myeloma using non‐targeted NPs (liposomes, polymeric NPs, and inorganic NPs), triggered NPs, as well as targeted NPs (VLA‐4, ABC drug transporters, bone microenvironment targeting). The results in preclinical and clinical studies are promising; however, there remains much to be learned in the emerging field of nanomedicine in myeloma.
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