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Evaluation of bone disease in multiple myeloma patients carrying the t(4;14) chromosomal translocation

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Abstract

T(4;14) chromosomal abnormality is one of the most adverse prognostic factors predicting for poor outcome in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. It has been recently suggested that bone disease, as evaluated by spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), is relatively infrequent in these patients. In the present study, we aimed at further testing this hypothesis by analyzing the extent of whole bone involvement in patients showing t(4;14) chromosomal translocation as compared with negative patients. For this purpose, 53 consecutive newly diagnosed MM patients (35M, 18F, median age = 55 yr) underwent evaluation of total skeletal X-ray, whole spine MRI, and at the same time, quantification of markers of bone resorption (urinary N-terminal telopeptide, pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, serum crosslaps), and bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) was performed. The presence of IgH/MMSET fusion gene as a surrogate marker for t(4;14), was detected in 11 patients (20.7%), whose clinical characteristics were similar to those observed in t(4;14) negative patients. The type of marrow involvement at spinal MRI (diffuse vs. focal vs. negative) was the same in both groups of patients, even though overt vertebral fractures were more frequently found in t(4;14) positive cases (82% vs. 43%, P = 0.05); in line with this finding, skeletal lesions were more common in t(4;14) positive patients (mean skeletal score = 8.54 ± 1.36 SE, as compared with 3.42 ± 0.57 SE in t(4;14) negative cases, P = 0.000). These data were confirmed by the evaluation of serum crosslaps, that were significantly increased in patients with t(4;14) abnormality as compared with negative individuals (10 400 pmol/L ± 2160 SE vs. 5640 pmol/L ± 859 SE P = 0.02) Our results indicate that, at variance to what has been previously reported, bone resorption is more prominent in t(4;14) positive patients.
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Keywords: bone disease; magnetic resonance imaging; multiple myeloma; t(4;14)

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2008

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