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Graft rejection and hyperacute graft-versus-host disease in stem cell transplantation from non-inherited maternal antigen complementary HLA-mismatched siblings

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Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched stem cell transplantation from non-inherited maternal antigen (NIMA)-complementary donors is known to produce stable engraftment without inducing severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We treated two patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and one patient with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) with HLA-mismatched stem cell transplantation (SCT) from NIMA-complementary donors (NIMA-mismatched SCT). The presence of donor and recipient-derived blood cells in the peripheral blood of recipient (donor microchimerism) and donor was documented respectively by amplifying NIMA-derived DNA in two of the three patients. Graft rejection occurred in the SAA patient who was conditioned with a fludarabine-based regimen. Grade III and grade IV acute GVHD developed in patients with AML on day 8 and day 11 respectively, and became a direct cause of death in one patient. The findings suggest that intensive conditioning and immunosuppression after stem cell transplantation are needed in NIMA-mismatched SCT even if donor and recipient microchimerisms is detectable in the donor and recipient before SCT.
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Keywords: fetomaternal microchimerism; graft failure; graft-versus-host disease; non-inherited maternal antigen; rejection

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Cellular Transplantation Biology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science 2: Department of Internal Medicine, Ishikawa Prefectural Central Hospital 3: Department of Internal Medicine, NTT West Japan Kanazawa Hospital 4: Department of Laboratory Science, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan

Publication date: February 1, 2007

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