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Fulminant tumour lysis syndrome in acute myelogenous leukaemia with inv(16)(p13;q22)

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Seftel MD, Bruyere H, Copland M, Hogge DE, Horsman DE, Nantel SH, Shepherd JD, Lavoie JC, Le A, Sutherland HJ, Toze CL, Nevill TJ. Fulminant tumour lysis syndrome in acute myelogenous leukaemia with inv(16)(p13;q22).

Eur J Haematol 2002: 69: 193–199. © Blackwell Munksgaard 2002. Abstract:

Tumour lysis syndrome (TLS) is caused by rapid breakdown of malignant cells resulting in electrolyte disturbances and acute renal failure. TLS has rarely been described in patients with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML). Between November 1997 and July 2001, 114 consecutive adult AML patients aged <60 yr received induction chemotherapy consisting of cytosine arabinoside 1.5 g m−2 q 12 h × 12 doses and daunorubicin 45 mg m−2 d−1 × 3 doses. During induction chemotherapy (CT), seven patients (6.1%, 95% CI 2.5–12.2) developed fulminant TLS, resulting in acute renal failure; five of these seven patients had inversion of chromosome 16 [inv(16)(p13;q22)], and one patient had a biological equivalent [t(16,16)(p13;q22)]. Four of the TLS patients underwent leukapheresis for a presenting white blood cell (WBC) count > 100 × 109 L−1 prior to commencing chemotherapy, and six patients subsequently required haemodialysis for a median of 2 (range 1–8) wk. One TLS patient died of intracerebral hemorrhage on day 10 and another patient of multiorgan failure on day 17. Of the other five patients, all entered a complete remission (CR) and recovered normal renal function. Four patients remain in continuous CR [median follow-up 20 (range 12–25) months]. One patient relapsed at 12 months and again developed TLS on re-induction. In univariate analysis, TLS patients were more likely to have an elevated presentation and pre-chemotherapy WBC counts, elevated serum creatinine, and uric acid levels at presentation, as well as an inv(16). In multivariate analysis, only serum creatinine and inv(16) remained statistically significant (P < 0.001 for each). Patients with an inv(16) are a unique AML subgroup at high risk for fulminant TLS.
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Keywords: acute myelogenous leukaemia; inversion(16); tumour lysis syndrome

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Leukemia and Bone Marrow Transplantation Program of British Columbia: Divisions of Hematology, Nephrology and Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital, British Columbia Cancer Agency, and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

Publication date: October 1, 2002

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