Abstract: There is strong evidence that non-immune chronic idiopathic neutropenia of adult is a cytokine-mediated syndrome characterized by (a) neutropenia of varying degree associated with a low number of lineage-specific CD34+ cells and increased production of inhibitors of hematopoiesis, including transforming growth factor-β1 and tumor necrosis factor-α; (b) lymphopenia due to selective loss of primed/memory T-cells and NK cells; (c) increased splenic volume on ultrasonography in 48.1% of patients; (d) osteopenia and/or osteoporosis in 60.0% of patients; (e) anemia, mostly of the type of anemia of chronic disease, in 15.6% of patients; (f) features of chronic antigenic stimulation, including increased proportion of bone marrow plasma cells, increased serum levels of IgG1 and/or IgA, increased frequency of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, increased frequency of antinuclear antibodies with specific reactivity, and increased serum levels of circulating immune complexes; and (g) increased concentrations of a variety of macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines capable of affecting bone metabolism, bone marrow function, and leukocyte trafficking. All these findings are suggestive of the existence of an unrecognized low-grade chronic inflammatory process which may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder. Neutropenia in these patients is probably the result of a combination of at least three factors, reduced neutrophil production in bone marrow, enhanced neutrophil extravasation, and increased sequestration and/or extravasation of neutrophils into the spleen.
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