Validation of MCADD newborn screening
Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) represents a potentially fatal fatty acid -oxidation disorder. Newborn screening (NBS) by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been implemented worldwide, but is associated with unresolved questions regarding population heterogeneity, burden on healthy carriers, cut-off policies, false-positive and negative rates. In a retrospective case-control study, 333 NBS samples showing borderline acylcarnitine patterns but not reaching recall criteria were genotyped for the two most common mutations (c.985A>G/c.199C>T) and compared with genotypes and acylcarnitines of 333 controls, 68 false-positives, and 34 patients. c.985A>G was more frequently identified in the study group and false-positives compared to controls (1:4.3/1:2.3 vs. 1:42), whereas c.199C>T was found more frequently only within the false-positives (1:23). Biochemical criteria were devised to differentiate homozygous (c.985A>G), compound heterozygous (c.985A>G/c.199C>T), and heterozygous individuals. Four false-negatives were identified because our initial algorithm required an elevation of octanoylcarnitine (C8) and three secondary markers in the initial and follow-up sample. The new approach allowed a reduction of false-positives (by defining high cut-offs: 1.4 mol/l for C8; 7 for C8/C12) and false-negatives (by sequencing the ACADM gene of few suspicious samples). Our validation strategy is able to differentiate healthy carriers from patients doubling the positive predictive value (42→88%) and to target NBS to MCADD-subsets with potentially higher risk of adverse outcome. It remains controversial, if NBS programs should aim at identifying all subsets of all diseases included. Because the natural course of milder variants cannot be assessed by observational studies, our strategy could serve as a general model for evaluation of MS/MS-based NBS.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: Research Center, Department of Biochemical Genetics and Molecular Biology, Dr von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany 2: Public Health Newborn Screening Center of the State of Bavaria, Oberschleißheim, Germany 3: Laboratory Becker, Olgemöller & Colleagues, Munich, Germany
Publication date: August 1, 2009