Biofilms and host response – helpful or harmful
Biofilm infections are one of the modern medical world's greatest challenges. Probably, all non‐obligate intracellular bacteria and fungi can establish biofilms. In addition, there are numerous biofilm‐related infections, both foreign body‐related and non‐foreign body‐related. Although biofilm infections can present in numerous ways, one common feature is involvement of the host response with significant impact on the course. A special characteristic is the synergy of the innate and the acquired immune responses for the induced pathology. Here, we review the impact of the host response for the course of biofilm infections, with special focus on cystic fibrosis, chronic wounds and infective endocarditis.
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