Microbiological diagnosis of device‐related biofilm infections
Medical device‐related infections cause undue patient distress, increased morbidity and mortality and pose a huge financial burden on healthcare services. The pathogens are frequently distributed heterogeneously in biofilms, which can persist without being effectively cleared by host immune defenses and antibiotic therapy. At present, there is no ‘gold standard’ available to reveal the presence of device‐related biofilm infections. However, adequate sample collection and logistics, standardised diagnostic methods, and interpretation of results by experienced personnel are important steps in efficient diagnosis and treatment of these infections. The focus of this mini review is on prosthethic joint and cardiovascular implantable device infections, which exemplify permanent devices that are placed in a sterile body site. These device‐related infections represent some of the most challenging in terms of both diagnosis and treatment.
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