Cefpodoxime 10 μg disc screening test for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae with mosaic PBP2 and decreased susceptibility to extended-spectrum cephalosporins for public health purposes
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae remains a global public health problem. Susceptibility to first-line treatment extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) is decreasing worldwide resulting in therapeutic failures with oral ESCs. This study describes a cefpodoxime 10 μg disc test for screening for gonococci containing a penA mosaic allele encoding a mosaic penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) and decreased ESC susceptibility. Selected clinical gonococcal isolates (n = 315), containing a high proportion of gonococci with decreased ESC susceptibility and high geographical, temporal and genetic diversity, were examined using agar dilution (n = 149; cefpodoxime and ceftriaxone) and Etest (n = 315; cefixime), and disc diffusion using a commercially available cefpodoxime 10 μg disc (n = 315). penA sequencing was performed on all isolates. The 2008 WHO gonococcal reference strains (n = 8) were included as quality controls. Using a ≤11 mm annular radius of growth inhibition as the breakpoint for the cefpodoxime 10 μg disc, all 78, with exception of one isolate (13 mm), mosaic PBP2-containing isolates, which also displayed decreased susceptibility to oral ESCs, were identified. In addition, 85 non-mosaic PBP2-containing isolates (44% of which contained a PBP2 A501 alteration) had annular radii ≤11 mm and raised minimal inhibitory concentrations to the ESCs. Screening for detection of mosaic PBP2-containing gonococci and decreased ESC susceptibility, most pronounced to oral ESCs, using a commercially available cefpodoxime 10 μg disc was rapid, inexpensive and sensitive. This test can be used in AMR surveillance programmes for public health purposes especially in less-resourced settings. Further studies to refine this disc testing-based approach are in progress.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: WHO Collaborating Centre for STD, Microbiology Department, The Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Sydney, Australia 2: National Reference Laboratory for Pathogenic Neisseria, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Microbiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden
Publication date: June 1, 2011