Superficial collagenous fibroma: Immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and flow cytometric study of three cases, including one pemphigus vulgaris patient with a dermal mass
Collagenous fibroma (desmoplastic fibroblastoma) is an extremely rare benign soft tissue tumor of fibroblastic origin. The majority of reported cases have been located in the deep subcutis, fascia, aponeurosis, or skeletal muscle of the extremities, limb girdles, or head and neck regions. There has been no mention of underlying diseases in patients who developed this tumor. We here report an additional three cases of superficial collagenous fibroma, one of which was a dermal lesion occurring in the abdomen of a 26-year-old male patient with a 5-year history of pemphigus vulgaris prior to development of the tumor. To the best of our knowledge, an association between collagenous fibroma and pemphigus vulgaris has not previously been reported. The remaining two tumors were located in the superficial subcutaneous tissue of the infrascapular area and right foot, respectively. There was no tumor recurrence or metastasis during follow up of 18, 25, and 47 months, respectively. All three tumors were well-circumscribed and unencapsulated without infiltrating borders. Histologically, the common denominator of all three cases was paucicellular proliferation of spindle or stellate fibroblasts enmeshed within an extensively collagenous background. Immunohistochemically, there was diffuse strong staining for vimentin and intense focal reaction for smooth muscle actin in two tumors tested. Electron microscopy revealed features consistent with a fibroblastic or myofibroblastic lineage. Flow cytometry in two cases demonstrated a diploid DNA content with low S-phase fractions, which correlated with minimal MIB-1 nuclear labeling (less than 1%) and benign behavior of this entity.
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