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Open Access Treatment for idiopathic toe walking: A systematic review of the literature

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Objective: To assess the effectiveness of currently available treatment options for idiopathic toe walking on the 3 main levels of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY).

Design: A systematic search from 1966 to December 2013 in MEDLINE, Current Contents, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library of full-length articles addressing clinical efficacy of treatment in children aged 2–18 years.

Methods: Studies were evaluated using both the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM) levels of evidence and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomised Studies (MINORS). Outcomes were analysed in accordance with the ICF-CY.

Results: One randomized controlled trial and 18 observational studies were identified. The randomized controlled trial was scored OCEBM level 1, whereas the other studies were scored level 4. The MINORS scores ranged from 2 to 18.

Conclusion: There is preliminary evidence for beneficial effects of serial casting and surgery on passive ankle dorsiflexion as well as on walking kinetics and kinematics, although normalization does not seem to occur. Botulinum toxin type A does not improve the results of casting. Only after surgery are sustainable effects lasting > 1 year reported. Effectiveness on functional activities and social participation has yet to be demonstrated.

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Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: November 1, 2014

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine is the international peer-reviewed journal published in English, with at least 10 issues published per year.

    Original articles, reviews, case reports, short communications, special reports and letters to the editor are published, as also are editorials and book reviews. The journal strives to provide its readers with a variety of topics including: functional assessment and intervention studies, clinical studies in various patient groups, methodology in physical and rehabilitation medicine, epidemiological studies on disabling conditions and reports on vocational and sociomedical aspects of rehabilitation.

    The journal is read by a wide group of healthcare professionals including specialists in rehabilitation medicine, neurology, clinical neurophysiology, general medicine, psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists and social workers.

    Contributions from all parts of the world and from different professions in rehabilitation are welcome.

    ISI Impact Factor 2009: 1.882.

    Owned by Foundation of Rehabilitation Information.

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