Nanoscale fabrication: techniques, limitations and future prospects
Purpose ‐ This paper aims to provide an overview of the strategies and techniques being used and developed for the fabrication of nanoscale devices. Design/methodology/approach ‐ This paper discusses various nanofabrication technologies and strategies and highlights their merits and limitations. It concludes with a consideration of longer-term possibilities. Findings ‐ It is shown that top-down nanofabrication frequently uses lithographic and other techniques derived from the microtechnology industry but recent research appears to have identified a limit to its capabilities. Bottom-up nanofabrication is less well-developed but techniques such as molecular mechanosynthesis may offer unique capabilities in the longer-term. Originality/value ‐ The paper provides a timely review of the rapidly developing field of nanofabrication technology.
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